Understanding education in a simple way can be described as human efforts to foster their personality with values that prevail in society. This simple definition is certainly not enough to explain the use of the term education which is very broad in scope.
Most people are familiar with the term education. Learning, schooling, reading and writing are often associated with educational activities. The very broad scope of education can only be understood if the meaning is narrowed down in certain contexts.
This blog post will explain the notion of education put forward by experts, then try to interpret its meaning by explaining the context. It should be noted in advance that the notion of education is always experiencing development along with the development of science and technology. So, the element of flexibility is part of the definition of education. What is education?
Definition of education
Education is more precisely placed on the mental process of becoming an adult. Educated people are adults who think. Maturity here can be interpreted as maturity in thinking. Although education is more relevant to be understood as a mental process, it does not mean that physical forging cannot be called education. Military academies that forge their students physically for example, are also called educational institutions so that their activities are also educational activities.
In this blog post, we will understand education as a learning process that emphasizes more on the mental maturity of a person or group of people. Immediately, we refer to the notion of education proposed by experts.
J. Langeveld said that education is every effort of influence and protection given to children to achieve self-maturity or help children to be more capable of carrying out their own life tasks.
John Dewey defines education as the process of forming fundamental intellectual and emotional abilities in relation to nature and fellow human beings.
J. Rousseau defines education as a debriefing process that we did not have as a child but we needed when we were adults.
Some education experts and philosophers from Indonesia have also formulated the definition of education as follows:
Driyarkara defines education as a process of humanizing young people or the appointment of young people to the human level.
Ki Hajar Dewantara said that education is a guide in life in the process of growing children, the purpose of which is to guide all natural forces that exist in students so that they as humans and as members of society can achieve the highest safety and happiness.
Ahmad D. Marimba said that education is guidance or leadership consciously by educators on the physical and spiritual development of students towards the formation of the main personality.
If the reader pays attention to some of the definitions proposed by the experts above, we will find a tendency towards defining the formation of children’s personalities into adulthood. The personalities in question vary, from intellectual, mental, emotional maturity, to happiness in the future when they are educated or mature.
Adult, in the above definition is not determined by age but by the achievement of educational goals themselves. Likewise children. We understand the children here as a group of educated people. Efforts to draw the common thread above understanding can be done as follows: First of all there are children who have not been able to live independently. Then they are given education. As an adult, the education provided results in the ability to act and prosper at least himself in life in society.
At this point the question arises for us, “who gives education to children?” The answer is of course adults, meaning those who are educated or those who have already gone through the educational process.
If we refer to the definition of education that has been stated above, the education referred to here is in the context of the transfer of knowledge from those who are educated to students.
It’s OK to say that the education we get comes from playing or traveling experiences. As far as there is knowledge transfer, any activity we do can be called education. But if we are imprisoned to gain knowledge, it cannot be said as an educational activity, at least according to the experts referred to in this post.
The education referred to here requires that there be educators, knowledge, and students. Reading can be referred to as an educational process even though it is done alone in a corner of the room because the material being read is science produced by educators.
Understanding education is broader than just teaching and learning activities in front of the class. The meaning of education narrows in teaching activities at school because it is often associated with formal activities. One education expert Carter V. Good defines education in two different contexts as follows:
»First, education can be understood as art, practice or profession as a teacher.
»Secondly, education can be understood as systematic science or teaching that is related to the principles and methods of teaching, supervision, and student guidance.
Another term that is often used interchangeably with education is pedagogy. Pedagogy is actually the science of education. The definition of education as a more relevant formal activity is explained using the term pedagogy.
At this point, we must carefully distinguish between education as a human activity and education as a science. As a science, again, the more appropriate term is pedagogy.
Below I will present some definitions of education by referring to the opinions of experts:
Driyarkara said that education is a scientific thought about reality which we call educating and being educated. This scientific thought is critical, methodical, and systematic.
J. Langeveld defines pedagogy as a science that not only examines the object of science to know the essential state of that object, but learns how the process and situation of education continues.
Sutari Imam Bernadib defines education as a science that studies the atmosphere and educational processes.
Brodjonegoro defines pedagogy as educational theory, contemplation on education, in the sense of science that studies problems that arise in educational practice.
From the several descriptions above, we can draw the similarity that pedagogy is different from education. Pedagogy is the science of education that talks about issues related to the theory and practice of education.